## Research about Fluency

**(Cited from the Book Fluency Doesn’t Just Happen)**

*“A rich and thorough development of number relationships is a critical foundation for mastering of basic facts. Without number relationships, facts must be rotely memorized. With number understanding, facts for addition and subtraction are relatively simple extensions” (p.120).*

Fluency doesn’t just happen! It is a well-planned journey. This community is meant to help you navigate that journey. Fluency is a multi-dimensional concept. We like to think of it as a 4-legged stool: accuracy, flexibility, efficiency and instant recall. Ann-Elise once said that “Automaticity has hijacked fluency. “ We love this because it is so true. Students need to be able to instantly recall their facts at some point so that they don’t get bogged down in the little stuff when they are working on multi-digit operations and fractions, decimals, and integers. BUT, students must learn their facts through a variety of engaging, ongoing, interactive, rigorous, student-friendly activities that build a fundamental understanding of how numbers are in relationship with each other. The research resoundingly states that computational fluency is multi-dimensional (speed and accuracy, flexibility and efficiency) (Brownell & Chazal, 1935; Brownell, 1956/1987; Kilpatrick, Swafford, & Findell, 2001; National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2000).